What You Really Should Be Aware Of Regarding Prostate Cancer


In the United States, males have a higher risk of developing prostate cancer than any other type of cancer. According to projections made by the American Cancer Society, there will be around 248,500 new cases of prostate cancer diagnosed in men in 2021 alone. In many instances, men who have prostate cancer do not display any symptoms, and in other cases, the cancer grows so slowly that it does not ever become an issue for the patient.

Urologist Marklyn Jones, MD, of Presbyterian/St. Luke’s Medical Center provides an explanation of the facts of prostate cancer.

What exactly is cancer of the prostate?

The prostate is a gland about the size of a walnut that contributes to the production of some of the fluid in semen. It can be found in front of the rectum and immediately beneath the bladder. Urine and sperm exit the body via the penis, which is connected to the urethra by the prostate. Urine and sperm exit the body via the urethra. The prostate gland is only found in males.

Cancer of the prostate develops when cells in the prostate gland multiply in an uncontrolled manner. A growth or tumour can be formed by these extra cells. Some cases of prostate cancer progress more slowly than others, but some of them can be quite aggressive. The adenocarcinoma subtype of prostate cancer is the most prevalent kind. Rare forms of prostate cancer include sarcomas, small cell carcinomas, transitional cell carcinomas, and neuroendocrine tumours. Sarcomas are the most common kind of prostate cancer. These various forms of cancer are extremely rare, affecting only approximately one percent of males.

Who’s likely to get it?

There are several factors that can enhance a man’s risk for the condition known as prostate cancer, and one in every eight men will receive a diagnosis of prostate cancer during their lifetime.

It is extremely unusual for a man to be diagnosed with prostate cancer before the age of 40. However, after the age of 50, and even more so beyond the age of 65, your risk increases. Men who have a family history of prostate cancer, particularly a brother or father who has been diagnosed with the ailment, have an increased likelihood of having the condition themselves. Men of African descent in the Caribbean and African descent in the United States have a higher risk of developing prostate cancer.

According to Jones, mutations in inherited genes such as BRCA1 and BRCA2 may also increase a man’s risk of developing cancer. The BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are meant to create tumour suppressor proteins that aid in the body’s natural process of repairing DNA that has been damaged. This procedure of repairing damage does not always work properly once they have been mutated or otherwise transformed.

Obesity may also increase a man’s risk for prostate cancer that is more aggressive, according to certain studies; however, this hypothesis needs to be confirmed by further research.

Is there a list of symptoms that one should keep an eye out for?

Men who are in the prostate cancer’s early stages often never experience any symptoms of the disease. It’s also possible that patients with advanced prostate cancer won’t show any symptoms at all. Those men who do have symptoms typically encounter the following:

  • Having trouble or experiencing discomfort while urinating
  • Frequent urination
  • Experiencing pain or stiffness in the hips, upper thighs, or lower back.
  • Pain during ejaculation
  • Erectile dysfunction
  • Blood in urine or semen

These symptoms almost always point to another health condition outside prostate cancer, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), a non-cancerous development of the prostate, or prostatitis, an inflammation of the prostate. Both of these conditions can cause the prostate to become inflamed. If you are experiencing any of these symptoms, you need to make an appointment with your healthcare provider (HCP) as soon as possible in order to have an accurate diagnosis.

Have a discussion regarding screenings with your HCP.

The debate over whether or not men should get screened for prostate cancer continues.

One study investigates the question of whether or not to treat prostate cancer in its early stages. According to the findings of a study that was recently published in The New England Journal of Medicine, there was not a significant difference in the death rates of men who were randomly selected to have surgery, radiation therapy, or to rely on active monitoring of the cancer with further treatment if the cancer progressed in the early stages of prostate cancer. The study was conducted on men who were in the early stages of the disease. There was nevertheless a substantially reduced risk of dying from the disease among men who chose to monitor their illness rather than receive early treatment for it. In point of fact, just 1% of people were found to have passed away 10 years after being diagnosed. The results of the study indicate that despite the ongoing discussion around screening, the decision to have one or not is ultimately one that should be made between a patient and their HCP.

It is possible that getting tested for prostate cancer could save your life if the disease is detected at an early stage. On the other hand, if you are diagnosed with a cancer that spreads slowly, you may worry unnecessarily or go through therapies that you do not require.

The most common screening test for prostate cancer, known as a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening, has been shown to frequently give false-positive results. These results can lead to follow-up testing like biopsies, which come with their own set of potential complications. In addition, PSA screenings have the potential to result in the overdiagnosis of tumours that are benign and would never have required treatment. The United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) has concluded that men between the ages of 55 and 69 should have an informed conversation with their healthcare provider (HCP) about the risks and benefits of getting screened. This conclusion was reached after taking into account all of the information presented above.

According to Dr. Jones, all men should have an initial baseline PSA between the ages of 40 and 50 after having an informed discussion with their physician about the risks and benefits of PSA screening. “My opinion is that all men should have an initial baseline PSA between the ages of 40 and 50,” says Dr. Jones.

Next the screening, you and your HCP will be able to select the following measures based on the initial PSA level that was determined. According to Jones, “the frequency of continuing screening might be prioritised based on the patient’s risk factors for developing prostate cancer” and the initial prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level. A PSA screening is not something that he recommends for people who believe they have less than 15 years left to live.

What kind of treatment is there for prostate cancer?

Patients diagnosed with prostate cancer can choose from a wide variety of therapy modalities. The treatment for prostate cancer shifts depending on the patient’s age as well as the stage of the cancer. Urologists and oncologists will typically take the lead in administering these medications. A man who has been diagnosed with prostate cancer may have access to one or more of the following treatment options:

Active surveillance or watchful waiting: patients are either closely observed for evidence of progression or “watched” for major signs of cancer progression in either “watchful waiting” or “active surveillance.”

A radical prostatectomy is a type of surgery that is minimally invasive and removes the prostate gland along with some of the tissue that surrounds it.

Radiation therapy and brachytherapy are both terms that refer to the employment of high-powered energy to kill off abnormal cells.

Cryotherapy is a method that treats cancer that is only present in the prostate gland by subjecting the patient to temperatures that are extremely low.

Hormone therapy is a treatment that lowers the amounts of male hormones, also known as androgens, in the body so that these hormones will no longer have an effect on the cancer cells.

If the disease has gone beyond the prostate, chemotherapy and oncolytic treatments are used. These anti-cancer therapies are either injected directly into the veins or taken orally.

The procedure of vaccinating someone against cancer involves exposing their cells to a protein that will assist their immune system in fighting against cancer.

The term “bone-directed treatment” refers to a pain-relieving and therapeutic method that has the potential to inhibit the creation of tumours. Tumors are produced when cancer cells begin to proliferate in the bones.

Here are four techniques to reduce your chances of developing prostate cancer:

You may not be able to avoid many of the variables that put you at risk for prostate cancer, but you can reduce that risk by changing some of your normal behaviours. According to Jones, the finest piece of guidance for disease prevention is to place an emphasis on maintaining an active lifestyle and eating a healthy food.

According to Jones, “a diet low in fat may be useful in the prevention of prostate cancer.” [Citation needed] According to recommendations made by medical professionals:

  • Consuming at least two and a half cups worth of fruits or vegetables on a daily basis
  • Engaging in consistent physical activity on a regular basis
  • Keeping a healthy weight as one’s goal

It is in your best interest to give up smoking as well. Ongoing clinical trials are looking into several approaches to reduce the incidence of prostate cancer in males. You can also keep up with ongoing cancer research trials by visiting the National Cancer Institute at any time.


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